The name Istanbul, used informally for several centuries in the country, was formalized on March 28, 1930, replacing Constantinople.
Although the political and administrative capital is Ankara, Istanbul is still a city that plays a fundamental role in Turkey’s industry, trade and culture. It is home to more than a dozen universities. It is the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, head of the Orthodox Church.
It was successively the capital of sovereign states such as the Roman Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire, the Latin Empire and the Ottoman Empire until 1923. With the end of the First World War and the defeat of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman European territory was reduced to tens of kilometers around Istanbul. On October 13, 1923.2, before the promulgation of the Turkish successor state, the Republic of Turkey, the Turkish parliament legally transferred the capital to Ankara.
The historic areas of Istanbul were declared World Heritage by Unesco in 1985, for its important monuments and historical remains.